first_img The population of Polish-speaking children in German territory is charted in this data map, one of many factors taken into consideration when redrawing national borders after the war. Another example of a large-scale map, which appears in the collection. The maps capture the magnitude of the war. Kris Snibbe/Harvard Staff Photographer The military, social, economic, and political effects of those crucial shifts are highlighted by the maps on display — handmade, one of a kind, or mass-produced. Some were brought home and donated to Harvard by alumni who had served.Mapmaking advanced more quickly during WWI than in any previous era. Prewar methods, such as relying on known landmarks, were often useless — landmarks could be destroyed or inaccessible. Trench warfare required soldiers to rely on data. Engineers developed sophisticated ways to gather information, recording flashes and booms from enemy cannons to triangulate location, exploiting the photographic potential of air power to create documents that saved lives.A guide to reading the aerial images points to the challenges presented by tilt, scale, and bomb-cratered terrain. “It’s hard to tell where anything is when everything looks like the moon,” said Bonnie Burns, curator of the exhibit and librarian for geographic information services.Plenty of WWI-era maps were not for military use; they were communications tools aimed at illustrating to the home front what was happening in strange and faraway places. Newspapers printed thousands. “They were trying to explain why they were fighting — if anybody knew,” Burns said.A 1914 German map depicts nations straining against borders; a 1918 U.S. map shows Germany as a looming black cloud poised to descend on Europe. Small details like fonts — gothic for German towns, modern for French — hint at the perspective behind the document.The fighting stopped but the mapmaking continued, recognizing new boundaries and new nations. Belgium, France, and Denmark expanded; Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland, and Yugoslavia formed.“The maps are amazingly detailed,” said Burns. “As a mapmaker, I wondered how they accomplished that in war conditions with the technology of the time. As a librarian I saw an amazing visual data set I thought researchers would be interested in.” Burns captured the scale and detail of the front in a single map by scanning 300 plans directeurs (detailed maps made by French soldiers), extracting data on trench positions and transposing it on modern road maps.In her final work, trenches vein across land, a bloody graph of months, years, lives, telling a cartographic story of convulsing cultures and wrenching change. The mapmaker’s editorial spin is evident in this 1914 caricature map, which shows each country with a unique persona. Germany strains against its borders, Serbia attempts to throw a bomb at Osterreich while Turkey holds a lit candle under a Crimean powder keg. Images courtesy of the Harvard Map Collection The new field of aerial photography was an invaluable tool to wartime mapmakers, but images could be difficult to read correctly. An original photo shows the extent of damage to the landscape; the resulting map below was adjusted for tilt, scale, and angle. Kris Snibbe/Harvard Staff Photographer World War I lasted four years, three months, two weeks, and one day. Dozens of nations were involved; more than 65 million soldiers were mobilized; casualties rose to 37 million. The Western Front stretched 600 miles through three countries.“From the Alps to the Ocean: Maps of the Western Front,” at Pusey Library through Nov. 11, captures the magnitude of the conflict, each map a shard of the shattered mirror reflecting a gruesome war.Life on the Western Front depended on a labyrinth of trenches quickly and gruelingly dug into battle positions in 1914. Roads, railways, trails, shelters, and ammunition depots sprang up behind the lines, absorbing towns and cities. Small conquests of territory represented big wins — and big losses — in the fight that shaped modern Europe and the Middle East. Mapping a war Curator Bonnie Burns used hundreds of plans directeurs, such as this one detailing the Argonne Forest in 1918, in order to pull together the comprehensive map of the Western Front. Red represents Allied-controlled territory, blue German-held lines. This 1918 rendering shows the enormity of the territory controlled by Central Powers in gray. Published in a magazine for an American audience, the map was advertised as a way to follow the “adventures” of soldiers on the front.last_img read more


first_imgBy Dialogo May 30, 2012 Promoting technological development in Colombia and presenting the latest and most innovative advances in the domestic and international defense and security industries are the primary objectives of EXPODEFENSA 2012, an event that the Colombian Defense Ministry will hold at the Corferias convention center from October 31 to November 2. In its third edition, EXPODEFENSA will promote commercial and technological exchange among the Armed Forces of different countries and the firms that manufacture and supply products and services related to the defense and security sector. The most important vendors and technology representatives in the areas of individual and collective non-lethal weapons, artillery systems, individual and vehicle armor, ships and boats, aircraft (planes and helicopters), and unmanned vehicles, among others, will be at the trade fair. Deputy Defense Minister for the Social and Enterprise Defense and Wellbeing Group, Yaneth Giha; the president of Corferias, Andrés López; the deputy commanders of the Military, and the deputy director of the National Police held the official presentation of EXPODEFENSA 2012 on the evening of May 28 at the Metropolitan Club in Bogotá.last_img read more


first_imgSign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York Getting the federal government to help fund Nassau County’s effort to clean up its polluted waterways brought together environmentalists, business leaders, scientists and elected officials at the first of four public meetings organized as part of Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s initiative to improve Long Island’s water quality, strengthen its natural barriers against future storms and protect the aquifer.Held Monday at the Nassau Legislature in Mineola, the governor’s review panel featured New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Commissioner Joe Martens, Nassau County Executive Ed Mangano, and Rep. Peter King (R-Seaford).Topping their agenda is the effort by New York State to obtain $690 million of Federal Emergency Management Agency funds to construct an ocean outfall pipe that would take wastewater treated at the Bay Park plant in East Rockaway and dump it in the Atlantic Ocean two miles off shore. The plant’s current outflow pipe is in Reynolds Channel. Just as important would be another $130 million to reduce nitrogen from the wastewater effluent to levels acceptable under federal Clean Water Act requirements, which would be 8 parts per million.“Nitrogen is a serious water quality impairment that is also operating to fundamentally undermine Long Island’s natural coastal resiliency,” said Commissioner Martens. “Under Gov. Cuomo’s direction, these meetings will be an important step to build a plan that will address longstanding wastewater issues in Nassau and Suffolk counties.”After Superstorm Sandy, the Bay Park plant was so severely damaged it was dumping tons of raw and partially treated sewage directly into Hempstead Bay, producing nitrogen pollution that severely harmed the tidal marshlands, according to studies commissioned by the state DEC.The second meeting will be held May 19 at SUNY Stony Brook to hear from a panel of experts on Suffolk County’s wastewater and septic system problems since 70 percent of that county’s homes and businesses aren’t served by sewers. The third meeting will be held May 28 featuring a tour of Suffolk water treatment facilities and highlighting the unacceptable nitrogen levels in the Great South Bay. The fourth meeting will take place in June at a date and venue yet to be announced, with the goal of finalizing recommendations to Cuomo on how best to address these problems.Mangano was very pleased by the first hearing. “Basically we’re building a case why Nassau County should receive funding for an outfall pipe,” he said, noting that reducing nitrogen levels to standards acceptable by the State DEC and the federal Environmental Protection Agency is “a very expensive proposition.”Currently, New York is spending about $810 million in FEMA funding to repair the Bay Park plant. All told, Mangano estimated the entire project including the new outfall pipe could cost more than $1 billion. But the large pipe could be a cost-effective solution to the county’s water pollution problem, Mangano pointed out, because it would eliminate the need to rebuild wastewater treatment plants on Long Beach and Atlantic Beach, which the superstorm also inundated. Instead, they could be replaced with much cheaper pumping stations that would connect to the Bay Park facility.“We want to put those dollars into the ocean outfall,” he said. “It’s a smarter way.”The first meeting of the governor’s initiative to “improve water quality and resiliency on Long Island,” as his office described it, drew high praise from Adrienne Esposito, executive director of the Citizens Campaign for the Environment and a state Senate hopeful, who gushed that it was “unprecedented. When do you see business, stakeholders and various levels of government all agreeing?”She said the prospects for an ocean outfall pipe from the Bay Park plant—which she and other environmentalists have been advocating for years—are “much better” than they’ve ever been.“It’s good for the economy, it’s good for public health, and it’s good for Long Island’s sustainability,” she said.last_img read more


first_imgDhito, however, added that he had yet to secure the backing of any political party to join the race, including the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), of which his father is a member. Late last week, Dhito attended a gathering organized by PDI-P’s Kediri branch, which is led by Agus Sunoto, Pramono’s brother-in-law and Dhito’s uncle. Agus told the gathering that Dhito was running in the upcoming regency election. Pramono, a former PDI-P secretary-general, said that, as Dhito’s father, he would support his son’s bid once the PDI-P declared its support for Dhito. “Once it is decided by the PDIP [to nominate Dhito as its regent candidate] then we will communicate with the chairmen of other political parties. I meet with them almost everyday as fellow Cabinet members,” he said on Saturday. The PDI-P holds the most seats in the Kediri Regional Legislative Council (DPRD) with 15 out of 50 seats, ahead of the National Awakening Party (PKB), which has nine seats, and the Golkar Party, which has six seats. To run in a regional election, a candidate must have the support of a party or coalition that holds at least 20 percent of seats in the DPRD. Dhito is not the only political blueblood set to take part in the upcoming regional elections. President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo’s eldest son Gibran Rakabuming Raka has officially registered with the PDI-P to run in the 2020 Surakarta mayoral election in Central Java, while Jokowi’s son-in-law Bobby Nasution has also registered with both the PDI-P and Golkar to run in the 2020 Medan mayoral race in North Sumatra. Vice President Ma’ruf Amin’s daughter Siti Nur Azizah is also set to run for South Tangerang mayor in Banten. Topics : Hanindhito Himawan Pramana, the son of Cabinet Secretary Pramono Anung, confirmed his intention to take part in Kediri regency election in East Java, adding to the tally of children of government officials and politicians who will run in this year’s regional elections. “If asked whether I am ready or not, I am ready. But now I am still communicating with the leaders of a number of political parties starting from the central office to the village level branches,” Hanindhito or Dhito, as he is commonly known, told journalists on Saturday on the sidelines of an event at the Lirboyo pesantren (Islamic boarding school) in Kediri. The event was also attended by his father as well as Transportation Minister Budi Karya Sumadi and Public Works and Housing Minister Basuki Hadimuljono. last_img read more