first_img High-Flying Electrons May Provide New Test of Quantum Theory (PhysOrg.com) — When Enrico Fermi investigated the Rydberg atom in the ’30s, he never imagined that the giant atoms could form molecules. Later, in the ’70s and ’80s, theoretical physicist Chris Greene predicted that Rydberg molecules could exist. But it wasn’t until recent advancements in ultracold physics that such an observation has been made possible. A recent study now shows that the Rydberg molecule can be created in the lab, and its observation supports decades of theory. Explore further In a paper published in Nature, scientists from the University of Stuttgart in Germany and the University of Oklahoma in the US explain how they have created Rydberg molecules with a calculated lifetime of 18 microseconds. Their Rydberg molecule consists of two rubidium atoms, one a Rydberg atom and one a groundstate atom. Connected by a very weak chemical bond, the two atoms are separated by about 100 nm (several thousand Bohr radii), which makes them much farther apart than atoms in most other molecules.As opposed to groundstate atoms, Rydberg atoms are excited atoms that have one electron in an outermost orbit very far from the nucleus (a state with a very high principal quantum number). For this reason, Rydberg atoms are large and can exhibit unusually long-range interactions. For example, scientists have previously investigated the bonding of two Rydberg atoms, which occurs across very large internuclear distances.In the current study, the scientists investigated a different bonding interaction, which occurs between a Rydberg electron and a groundstate atom. As the researchers explain, this bond arises from the low-energy scattering of the Rydberg electron with the negative scattering length from a groundstate atom when the atoms are at a specific location within the Rydberg electron wavefunction. To observe these giant molecules, the researchers prepared a magnetically trapped sample of ultracold rubidium atoms. As the rubidium cloud cooled, the atoms in the gas moved closer together. At temperatures close to absolute zero (-273°C), the atoms’ nuclei were separated by the critical distance of 100 nanometers. The researchers then excited some of the atoms to the Rydberg state with a laser. “If we have a gas at the critical density, with two atoms at the correct distance that are able to form the molecule, and we excite one to the Rydberg state, then we can form a molecule,” said Vera Bendkowsky of the University of Stuttgart, lead author of the study. Using spectroscopic techniques, the researchers could investigate these exotic molecular states, such as determining the 18-microsecond lifetime of the molecules. The experimental results agree well with predictions, confirming long-held fundamental atomic theories. Based on the results of their spectroscopic characterization, the scientists predict that other states could be realized and investigated in the near future. One possibility is the realization of “trilobite molecules,” which are bound states involving a Rydberg electron with large angular momentum.More information: Vera Bendkowsky, Bjorn Butscher, Johannes Nipper, James P. Shaffer, Robert Low & Tilman Pfau. “Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.” Nature, Vol 458, 23 April 2009, doi:10.1038/nature07945.via: BBC News© 2009 PhysOrg.com Citation: Scientists Make First Observation of Unique Rydberg Molecule (2009, April 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-04-scientists-unique-rydberg-molecule.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Johannes Rydberg, the physicist whom the Rydberg atom is named after. Credit: AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives, W. F. Meggers Collection. last_img read more


first_imgKolkata: Breaking new ground, Kolkata’s Jiya Das has become the first transgender Operation Theatre technician in an Indian hospital, but theatre artists and actors from the community still face discrimination in the culture-loving city, say activists. Jiya, who once had to dance at gun point in soirees in Uttar Pradesh, is now working in a city-based super-specialty hospital, said Bappaditya Mukherjee, Secretary, Prantakatha, an organisation working for marginalised youth. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights “For young people, it is very important to get livelihood. Almost one and half years back, we organised an event called ‘Saathrangi’. During that event, a health entrepreneur said that he will take two members of the transgender community and train them as OT technicians. “Today Jiya Das is the first transgender OT technician in the country,” said Mukherjee. Jiya is treated at par with others in the hospital, he said at a panel discussion titled “South Asian Dialogue on LGBTQI Youth and Livelihood Discrimination” at the American Centre on Wednesday. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed However, Ranjita Sinha, member of the West Bengal Transgender Board, said problems of the transgender community are getting confused with female issues. “I respect all members of LGBTQI community but transgenders are always visible, hence they face discrimination and violence all the time. The census still is not clear on the transgender community and we are mixing our issues with female issues,” said Sinha. “The West Bengal Transgender Board is supported by the women and child development and social welfare board. I have no idea where the movement is heading,” added Sinha. An activist-cum-theatre personality Anurag Maitrayee said that there is politics between the privileged and non-privileged within the LGBTQ community. To understand the pulse one has to step out and visit the interiors to know what the person actually feels. “For transgender people, monetary exploitation in the field of art and entertainment is tremendous, which must be addressed. We are made to understand that we are at least getting some work,” said Maitrayee. Samarpan Maiti, who finished second runner-up at the Mr Gay World 2018, shared his ordeal and how he faced discrimination in reputed institutes of Kolkata. The condition in rural areas is even worse. “I have seen parents cutting all financial aid for a lesbian girl and not letting them continue their education out of fear that if they are financially independent they will not succumb to the pressures of getting married. They are forcibly married off,” said Subhagata Ghosh, one of the founder members of Sappho for Equality, a Kolkata based 19 year old organisation working for lesbians and bisexual and transgender women. She also mentioned that the condition in the rural and suburban regions is all the more difficult, citing the recent suicide of two girls amid some evidence that they were in love. “Now in that village parents are trying to restrict all the girls from going to school thinking they would become vulnerable and do something like this,” said Ghosh.last_img read more


first_imgUpsetting Congress plans to wrest control of the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) council with an all out offensive, BJP won 100 wards out of 198, as the results were declared today by the State Election Commission for the polls held on August 22.After its wins in the civic polls in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, the Bengaluru results make it three-in-a-row for BJP, which weathered an aggressive campaign led from the front by the Chief Minister himself against its rule in BBMP. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJICongress bagged 76, JDS headed by former Prime Minister H D Deve Gowda 14 and others eight, according to BBMP officials.Though marginally short of a simple majority mark of 103 in the 254-member council, BJP is expected to draw on support from Independent councilors to reach the magic figure.Admitting that the results are not according to his party’s expectations, Siddaramaiah said, “We had expected a simple majority for Congress.” He said, “This result is not a referendum on my government, but as a Chief Minister I own responsibility.”  Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindAmid wild celebrations by BJP, Union minister Ananth Kumar said, “This mandate shows that countdown has begun for Siddaramamaih and for the Congress.” Union Law Minister D V Sadananda Gowda said “the results show that Siddaramaiah-led government has not taken off till now,” while BJP Vice-President B S Yeddyurappa said the verdict “shows the relevance of Modi wave still.” The elections were the culmination of a prolonged court battle, as the Siddaramaiah government sought to defer it on grounds of trifurcating BBMP, with the Opposition crying foul and accusing it of doing so out of fear of losing the polls. A total of 1,121 candidates were in the fray. One candidate from BJP was already elected unopposed.Besides Corporators, the 254-member BBMP Council includes 56 other members from Bengaluru with voting rights– 28 MLAs, 15 MLCs, five Lok Sabha and eight Rajya Sabha members.During the 2010 BBMP polls, BJP which then was ruling the state had won in 111 wards, Congress in 65 wards, JD(S) in 15 and others 17.last_img read more


first_imgIn a suspected inter-caste violence case in which two Dalit kids were burnt alive, the state administration arrested four accused out of 11 and suspended four police officials who were in charge of the situation in the Sunped village of Faridabad district.On Tuesday morning a few people of one community allegedly set fire to the home of a Dalit family killing Vaibhav (2) and Divya (nine-months-old) and causing serious burn injuries to their mother Rekha.According to the information received from a state government spokesperson — Balwant, Dharam Singh, Kartar and Guddu have been detained out of the 11 accused. All these four detained accused belong to the influential Balu Rajput camp in Sunped village in Faridabad district. The police also suspended four policemen who were amongst the seven police personnel who were deployed with the victims’ family for security. The four policemen included police officers of different ranks. Inspector Anil Kumar, OC of  Sadar Ballagbarh police station was suspended for dereliction of duties. Also Read – Man arrested for making hoax call at IGI airportConstables Bali Mohammed, Vikas and Sandeep have been placed under suspension for showing laxity as they failed to protect the victims as they were deployed for the security of the victims’ family. Till now, nineteen persons have been booked for the triple murder in 2014 of the three members of Jitender’s family. Sources also reveal that Balwant’s relatives could be the other accused responsible for the incident as Jitender (father of the two kids) and Balwant have been having clashes between them since October 2014. It also came to light that this bitter rivalry between the Rajput Balu family and the Dalit Lajli camp have been on since three decades.last_img read more


first_imgKolkata: The body of a 14-year-old school student was found from a mustard field at Purbasthali in East Burdwan.The deceased identified as Arshad Shaikh was missing since Monday. On Tuesday, locals saw his body and reported the matter to the police. According to them, Arshad’s father stays outside state due to his profession. As his mother died when he was an infant, Arshad used to stay with his maternal uncle and relatives at Babuidanga, Pachimpara in Purbasthali. He was a student of class VIII in a local school. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeArshad’s family members said on Monday after returning from school, he went to watch a religious programme in the village. As he did not return within the usual time, the family members started searching for him. Despite searching throughout the night, Arshad could not be located. On Tuesday morning, a search for Arshad was again initiated but no one could trace him. In the evening, some villagers located Arshad’s body on the bank of a canal beside a mustard field not far from his home. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedHis family members and police were informed accordingly. Cops reached the spot and faced agitation by the villagers. Later, senior police officials went there and assured villagers that steps would be taken accordingly. Sources informed that several injury marks could be seen on Arshad’s body. His face was partly smashed. Police have started a murder case against unknown person/s on the basis of a specific complaint lodged by Arshad’s uncle Raju Shaikh. The sleuths are suspecting that Arshad may been murdered over some family enmity. To find out the possible motive, cops are questioning Arshad’s family members and people, who are close to Arshad and his family. “Probe is on. All possible aspects will be looked into,” said a senior police officials.last_img read more


first_imgKolkata: Two renowned confectioneries in Kolkata have been asked to maintain hygiene during their cake mixing process.On Tuesday, Deputy Mayor of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) visited the two confectioneries and found their factories and shops to be unhygienic. The process of serving food is also not safe. According to Ghosh, KMC inspected several bakeries and confectioneries as Christmas and New Year are knocking on the door. Citizens usually buy cakes from these renowned confectioneries to celebrate the festive season. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeHe also informed that a total 23 bakeries and confectioneries has been marked for having an unhygienic environment. They will served improvement notice on Wednesday. If they do not comply as per the notice and follow the rules mentioned in the Food Safety and Standards Act properly, steps would be taken. “We found two renowned confectioneries where workers work with bare hands. We told them to use gloves. But one of the owners said it is not possible to properly mix cake using gloves. If gloves cannot be used then they should sanitise there workers in a proper way,” said Ghosh. Deputy Mayor instructed the bakeries and confectioneries to use gloves while serving as well. The utensils for keeping food should be sanitised accordingly.last_img read more


first_imgTeenagers’ natural desire to rebel against authority could be tapped to drive them to replace junk food with healthier choices, a study has found. Food marketing, designed to foster strong positive associations with junk food in kids’ minds and to drive overeating, is one of the biggest obstacles in the public fight against obesity. The study, published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour, found that a simple and brief intervention can provide lasting protection for adolescents against these harmful effects of food marketing. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe method works in part by tapping into teens’ natural desire to rebel against authority, researchers said. The team from the University of Chicago in the US went into classrooms and had one group of students read a fact-based, expose-style article on big food companies. The article framed the corporations as manipulative marketers trying to hook consumers on addictive junk food for financial gain. The stories also described deceptive product labels and advertising practices that target vulnerable populations, including very young children and the poor. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveA separate, control group of students received traditional material from existing health education programs about the benefits of healthy eating. The researchers found that the group that read the exposes chose fewer junk food snacks and selected water over sugary sodas the next day. Teens first read the marketing expose material, and then did an activity called “Make It True,” meant to reinforce the negative portrayal of food marketing. The students received images of food advertisements on iPads with instructions to write or draw on the ads – graffiti style – to transform the ads from false to true. The study found that the effects of the marketing expose intervention endured for the remainder of the school year – a full three months. The effects were particularly impressive among boys, who reduced their daily purchases of unhealthy drinks and snacks in the school cafeteria by 31 per cent in that time period, compared with the control group. Researchers found that reframing how students view food-marketing campaigns can spur adolescents, particularly boys, to make healthier daily dietary choices for an extended period of time. “Food marketing is deliberately designed to create positive emotional associations with junk food, to connect it with feelings of happiness and fun,” Christopher J Bryan, from University of Chicago. Teenage boys, a notoriously difficult group to convince when it comes to giving up junk food, started making healthier food and drink choices in their school cafeteria. “One of the most exciting things is that we got kids to have a more negative immediate gut reaction to junk food and junk food marketing, and a more positive immediate gut reaction to healthy foods,” said Bryan. This relatively simple intervention could be an early sign of a public-health game changer, researchers said.last_img read more


first_imgNatya Vriksha, its president dancer Geeta Chandran and the India International Centre, New Delhi have been celebrating the World Dance Day for last 15 years by conducting activities (such as talks, lectures, discussion, film screening, workshops and performances by young exceptionally talented dancers) related to dance.This year marks the 15th year of this collaboration. Like every year, very interesting programs are lined up for April 27 and 28, at the India International Centre. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe mornings would feature workshops by Santosh Nair, followed by a workshop on ‘Rythm’ the following day by young percussionist, Manohar Balatchandirane. One of the very interesting feature of this year’s World Dance Day program is a lecture by Amb Pavan K Varma on the topic ‘The glorious legacy of Indian Culture: Challenges and Opportunities.’ Also, there will be a presentation by senior dancer and dance teacher from Baroda, Rema Srikanth on her personal journey. This will be followed by beautiful dance recitals by young and talented dancers from different parts of India. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveSpeaking about the event, Geeta Chandran says, “This is the 15th year that I am curating World Dance Day events with the India International Centre.” The dancer says that each year she tries to change the format of the observance; sometimes it is lectures, other times it is films, discussions, seminars, workshops, demonstrations. According to her, the fluidity of the festival is its strength and its resilience. And, this year, the festival is bigger and more exciting.last_img read more