first_imgNigel Williams tried to explain in Current Biology1 why “size matters” among marine iguanas in the Galapagos Islands: the vectors of natural and sexual selection don’t always line up.  Females appear to like the big males when times are good, but when drought comes, the smaller dudes do better.    There’s a difficulty with such investigations.  Even though this habitat was a “rich source of information for Charles Darwin when developing his theory of evolution,” the article admits that “Factors influencing the evolution of complex traits such as body size are notoriously difficult to study but a new review of work on marine iguanas in the Galapagos islands suggests an answer may lie in the interplay of natural and sexual selection” (emphasis added).1Nigel Williams, “Size matters,” Current Biology, Volume 15, Issue 18, 20 September 2005, Page R742.Why should Darwin be mentioned in this article, except as a historical embarrassment?  There is no evolution here.  Heap big iguana is still iguana as much as peewee.  Size is not a “complex trait” in the sense of evolving wings or some new organs; it is just a modification of parts already present.  There is no long-term evolutionary trend here, but rather only oscillations around a mean that reflect climate conditions – otherwise we should see iguanas the size of Godzilla by now.  If natural and sexual selection work against each other, then stasis rules, not evolution.  Charlie won’t get anywhere with slippage on the treadmill (see 03/17/2003 entry).(Visited 6 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more


first_imgAccording to the Department of Health, swine flu is an airborne disease that spreads in the same way as seasonal flu, through coughing and sneezing. It cannot be caught by eating pork. Anyone with moderate or severe symptoms should also seek medical attention immediately. People who are suffering from the symptoms should see their doctor. 19 August 2009 South Africa has set up a hotline, as well as a dedicated e-mail address, for public queries about H1N1 influenza, or swine flu.The hotline number is 0861 364 232 (or 0861 DOH CDC)The e-mail address is: H1N1@health.gov.za The hotline will be operated by trained personnel on communicable diseases, supported by experts from the Department of Health. As of 19 August 2009, South Africa had over 3 400 confirmed cases of swine flu, while the number of deaths in the country related to the pandemic stood at six. The provinces with the most infections were Gauteng, with over 1 800 cases, followed by the Western Cape with over 800 cases and KwaZulu-Natal with over 350 cases. Health Minister Aaron Motsoaledi announced last week that South Africa would be stepping up its response to the swine flu pandemic with the launch of major awareness campaigns countrywide.What is swine flu? The World Health Organisation (WHO) says illnesses such as existing cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, diabetes and cancer are considered risk factors for swine flu. Source: BuaNews “Asthma and other forms of respiratory disease have been consistently reported as underlying conditions associated with an augmented risk of severe pandemic disease in several countries,” the WHO said in a recent statement. Symptoms can be divided into “mild”, “moderate” and “severe”. Mild symptoms include a runny or blocked nose, fever, muscular aches and pains, a general feeling of unwellness and coughing. “The overwhelming majority of people have mild symptoms and will not need any specialised medical care, and we believe nothing should happen to them,” Health Minister Motsoaledi said last week. “Such symptoms should be treated as with other influenza-like symptoms.” It is treatable with antiviral medication, which is available in South Africa but may only be used under a medical doctor’s direction. However, people with chronic heart or lung disease, pregnant women, or people living with HIV/Aids, should seek medical care immediately if they develop even mild symptoms. Transmission can be avoided by coughing or sneezing into a tissue or hanky; by washing one’s hands regularly; and by avoiding crowded areas, especially if people have symptoms of the flu. Moderate symptoms include mild symptoms as well as shortness of breath, chest pain, persistent vomiting and diarrhoea and signs of dehydration. Swine flu: ‘don’t over-react’ Risk factors According to the WHO, recent reports suggest obesity may be another risk factor for severe H1N1 infection. Pregnant women also seem to be at higher risk of contracting the disease. Severe symptoms include mild and moderate symptoms as well as signs of respiratory distress, blue lips and other parts of the body, and severe drowsiness and loss of consciousness.last_img read more


first_imgUse an expression to create random movement with the wiggle expression in After Effects. In this post we’ll show you how to create wiggle easily by modifying numbers…not keyframes.Editors sometime cringe at the word expressions, but have no fear.  When you understand them they really aren’t scary and can end up saying you a lot of time.If you’ve ever seen animations where light is flickering or a camera shakes, it’s likely you’ve seen the wiggle expression in action.  Wiggle is one of the most popular After Effects expressions, as it is easy to use and visually interesting.  Instead of creating a bunch of keyframes to make a layer randomly move, we can do this with a couple of numbers.The Wiggle Expression in After EffectsFor this example I created the word ‘wiggle’ from text.  I want the position of this text to wiggle, so select the text layer and hit P to open the Position Transform properties.Option (Mac) or Alt (PC) click on the stopwatch to create the expression. The text turns Red, telling you there is an expression applied.Type wiggle(2,50). This expression states that twice a second the text should wiggle 50 pixels on the x & y axis – the first number is how many times a second, the 2nd is the amount of pixel movement.If you want to modify the wiggle simply change the numbers.  If we had done this with keyframes, every time the client wanted changes we would have to change the keyframes – not fun!Wiggling One DimensionWhat if you want to wiggle just the x or y position? This expression is a little more complicated, but you don’t have to write it.I went to motion-graphics-exchange.com (an online resource for After Effects expressions), and searched for “wiggle one dimension”.  This is the expression they have for ‘wiggle in one dimension’:wiggle only in x (horizontal):org=value; temp=wiggle (5,50); [temp[0],org[1]];Shorthand:[wiggle(5,50)[0],position[1]]wiggle only in y (vertical):org=value; temp=wiggle (5,50); [org[0],temp[1]];Copy this text into your After Effects project and you’re done!For more After Effects expressions check out motion-graphics-exchange and aenhancers.com.  If you want to learn about creating expressions, check out: JJGifford, MotionScript and Gray Machine.Controlling the Wiggle ExpressionWhat if you don’t want the layer wiggling constantly? A common technique is to add an expressions control to a null layer so we can keyframe the wiggle.  For AE newbies, a null is an object that doesn’t render that we can use to control other layers.We are going to use the null with the original position wiggle we created on the Wiggle text (above).From the Layer Menu select New and then Null Object. Rename the Null “wiggle control” and then apply the effect “Sliders Control” (in the Expressions Controls category). Select the wiggle control layer in the timeline, and type E to reveal the Slider Control effect. Click the twirly for Slider Control to see the stopwatch.Go to the Wiggle text expression and select just the 2. with the 2 selected, click the pickwip (looks like a curly cue), and drag the pick whip to the Slider stopwatch.Pick whip is highlighted in Red:Here is the larger view:We no longer see a wiggle, as the Slider is now controlling how many times a second the text wiggles. Click the stopwatch to create a keyframe at the beginning, then move the playhead further in time and change the amount for the Slider to increase the wiggle.  You can turn on motion blur to enhance the effect.Motion Blur Highlighted in RED (click for larger view):Now you know how to create a wiggle expression in After Effects and how to control it using a null and an expression slider effect – a huge timesaver.What After Effects expressions do you rely on?Share them with us in the comments below!last_img read more


first_imgThe administration in southern Assam’s Cachar district has ordered a magisterial probe into the leakage of data related to the National Register of Citizens (NRC).Files with names of people within the Silchar Sadar circle had been leaked out before the complete draft was published on July 30. “Two executive magistrates and a State civil service officer have been tasked with investigating the leakage and submit a report within 48 hours,” Cachar Deputy Commissioner S. Lakshmanan told newspersons on Wednesday.He said the investigators would soon zero in on one of the NRC Nagarik Seva Kendras in the circle where the mischief might have been done.Information pertaining specifically to the Madhurband area of Silchar had been leaked out 24 hours before the complete draft was published. An FIR was lodged in the local police station and a computer shop raided.A grouping of 11 Left and democratic political parties and a forum against Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016 on Wednesday said some forces within and beyond Assam were trying to derail the NRC exercise by giving it a communal slant.last_img read more