first_imgIs The End of the RNA World Hypothesis Near Because Multiple Universes Are Needed for It?by Salvador CordovaA somewhat recent article in Quanta Magazine proclaimed the end of the RNA World Hypothesis. Charles Carter is a longtime critic of the RNA world. He was quoted as saying:Recent papers published in Biosystems and Molecular Biology and Evolution delineated why the RNA world hypothesis does not provide a sufficient foundation for the evolutionary events that followed. Instead, said Charles Carter, a structural biologist at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, who co-authored the papers, the model represents “an expedient proposal.” “There’s no way that a single polymer could carry out all of the necessary processes we now characterize as part of life,” he added.So what is Carter’s alternative? Carter points out that it is necessary for some other things have to be there with the first life along with RNA such as “‘loading’ molecules called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.” Er, you mean sophisticated proteins!Theoretical self-replication of RNA (Illustra Media)The various origin-of-life theories were things like “RNA first” or “proteins first” or “metabolism first,”  etc. Few have entertained the idea of “everything first” since that looks too much like special creation. However, Carter unwittingly inches closer to the “everything first” model. How, for example, can one have a protein like an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase arise without a means of making it and regulating it? In fact, there have to be several of them, not just one since there are 20 amino acids. The best way to make them is to have DNA with instructions to make them, but then where does the DNA come from without proteins, and where do proteins come from without DNA? DNA transcribes to RNA and RNA translates to proteins and proteins synthesize DNA, and the cycle continues. This is a classic chicken-and-egg paradox where one asks, “Which came first, the chicken or the egg?” Under an “everything first” model, obviously the chicken.Charles Carter has been a long-time critic of the RNA world. Though he believes the RNA World hypothesis is just about to expire, bad theories that are dead factually have a way of walking around like the living-dead. Jonathan Wells uses the term “zombie science” to describe such theories. I’m afraid the RNA world hypothesis might not end anytime soon because like other zombie ideas, they are enthralling fictions. [By the way, one of my biochemistry teacher’s favorite shows was The Walking Dead.]Charles Carter has been ignored by most of the origin of life community. Why? He pointed out in an earlier paper in the Journal of Biological Chemistry:Koonin estimates that assembling the replicative fidelity necessary for an RNA-only origin would require multiple universes.But it should be worth mentioning that Koonin accepts the existence of life in our universe as good evidence there are multiple universes! He said so in Biology Direct, where he proclaims confidently that the existence of “many worlds” resolves the problem of the RNA world’s improbability. From that leap of faith, he proclaims:A final comment on “irreducible complexity” and “intelligent design”. By showing that highly complex systems, actually, can emerge by chance and, moreover, are inevitable, if extremely rare, in the universe, the present model sidesteps the issue of irreducibility and leaves no room whatsoever for any form of intelligent design.Koonin is stepping out in faith here, because science has no way of detecting many worlds. He’s basing so much of his anti-intelligent design views on pure speculation. There could just as well be an ultimate Designer, and it is also hypothetically possible there is a single Designer for all the many worlds.I challenge those who reject the possibility of the Christian God and Creator with this thought, “Would you wager a thousand dollars in a casino based on the many-worlds hypothesis being true? If not, then why would you wager your soul?”Salvador Cordova has appeared on National TV, radio shows, newspapers, books and magazines for his work in promoting Intelligent Design and Creation Science. He is a former scientist and engineer in the aerospace and defense industry and presently serves as a professor and researcher in the area of Christian apologetics at small Bible College. He has four science degrees and is working on a PhD. For his previous entries on CEH, see his Author Profile.(Visited 1,044 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more


first_imgHow Intelligent Data Addresses the Chasm in Cloud Related Posts Google has gotten to be pretty good at introducing cross-platform services that bring productivity and efficiency into our daily lives. But increasingly one has to wonder: why the hell should we care about services that, like every other in the cloud, could disappear at any given moment?This week alone, rumors were out about Google Babble, a new effort to combine the different communication services (like Talk, Hangout and Chat) into one client/platform.Then there were the confirmed efforts to hook third-party apps into using Google Drive, which would enable Google to act as the repository for application generated data.Finally, just yesterday, the new Google Keep app for Android debuted, a service that, if it gets more features and maturity, could give Evernote a run for its money. But I have to ask myself, why in the world would I want to use a service like this from Google when they could, with two magic words, arbitrarily decide to drop the service if it doesn’t work out for them?Those words? “Spring Cleaning.” (Or, “Fall Cleaning,” depending on the date.)Now, in full disclosure, I am very unlikely to use Google Keep anyway, since I still – still! – can’t seem to integrate Evernote into my life.But even if I were inclined to use Keep, “spring cleaning” comes back to remind me that putting my trust in Google services is becoming a bad idea.It’s Always About The MoneyLet me be blunt: spring (or fall) cleaning for Google is really a breezy little marketing term for “we can’t figure out how to monetize this, so it’s gone.” Looking at the most recent spring cleaning blog from Google, which lists the closures of APIs and services that Google will no longer support, that certainly seems to be the case. That, or they’re changing things up in order to get increased revenue from existing services.Google Reader, of course, was the service that got the most attention in this latest round of spring cleaning, with good reason: a service that’s been around since 2005, has tens if not hundreds of thousands of users, and Google just up and decides to ax it. It is particularly irksome for me, since I use Reader as the main service provider for my Reeder app on iOS and OS X. I’ll do the manual extract and import using Google Takeout, so in the long run, I’m only out an hour of work time.But here’s the thing: what other services does Google have that could get spring cleaning treatment someday?I notice, for instance, Google News doesn’t have ads, nor will it in the near future, because the only thing that keeps most publishers from suing Google is that Google doesn’t generate direct revenue from Google News. (And even that doesn’t stop some publishers.) At what point does Google look at the amount of effort they put into News and see they’re not getting the expected returns?Google Voice, which provides voice-over-IP, voice mail and transcription services users, does have a Skype-like freemium model, where the voicemail and Google-provided phone number is free, but making outbound international calls from the U.S. costs something. With a little revenue coming in – and, possibly, integration into Babble on the horizon – maybe Voice won’t be on the chopping block.More Ways To RevenueThere are other ways to get revenue than ads, of course. Google + doesn’t have ads (now), but Google has been pushing +1 functionality on ads in their Display Network for quite some time, so there’s revenue being generated in there.My fixation on ads is unfortunate, since an ad-free world would be nice. But nothing in life is free, and without some way to generate money for a given service, eventually that service will have to be shuttered or changed into something that can pull in the revenue – something I might not like.Google has gotten to the point where, try as they might, they can no longer afford to keep services sans revenue going indefinitely. As a publicly traded company, they can’t. Google has to demonstrate to shareholders at the end of the day that they are doing everything possible to generate more revenue.Am I saying that it is never okay to trust Google? That’s going to depend on your level of trust. As a consumer, my personal comfort zone is becoming seriously encroached. I look around at all of the Google-based services I use (Gmail, Calendar, Maps, Voice, News) for work and personal use and wonder if this road I have traveled with good intentions isn’t leading me to a very troublesome spot.Beyond GoogleThe fault lies not with Google alone, either. This is a whole cloud services concern. I won’t use Keep, but I am trying to use Evernote and I do use Omnifocus. Comixology stores the comics that won’t fit on my iPad. Trello manages my workflow. Amazon holds movies and TV shows that my family have purchased.So what happens when one of these companies goes belly up? Or their servers go down? Or there’s a payment mix up and they decide to kill my account? These are problems that would range from pain in the ass to outright catastrophes, depending on the circumstances.There is a mythos in the U.S. psyche that we must own things. Own a car, not lease it. Buy a house, not rent. But cloud services increasingly put us in the position of renting, or putting up with unwanted features (ads) to get something for free.And, even if we do “own” something on the cloud, it’s far more ephemeral than storing it in the physical world. I can own a movie on a DVD, and, sure, it can get lost, stolen, damaged or destroyed here in my house. Nothing in life is permanent. But in the cloud, things we buy are even more out of our direct control, and subject to the technical, legal and financial whims of the vendor holding our stuff.If anything, Google’s spring cleaning is a great reminder of those whims, and a wake-up call to anyone thinking about any cloud service. Go ahead and use what you want, but always make sure you have an exit strategy in place for when you want to leave, or the cloud vendor decides to close the store.Image courtesy of Google. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#Google center_img Serverless Backups: Viable Data Protection for … brian proffitt Cloud Hosting for WordPress: Why Everyone is Mo…last_img read more


first_imgThe Goa government on Thursday decided to donate ₹5 crore to the Kerala Chief Minister’s relief fund, according to a statement issued by the Chief Minister’s Office. This apart, all employees of the state government, as well as autonomous bodies funded by the state exchequer, are expected to voluntarily contribute a day’s salary towards flood relief efforts, the CMO statement said. “Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar has sanctioned Rs.5 crore as Goa government’s contribution towards Kerala CM’s relief fund for Kerala flood relief operations,” the official statement released here said. “In addition to the above, all employees of Goa government and autonomous bodies are expected to voluntarily contribute their one day salary towards flood relief work in Kerala. Goa stands in solidarity with the people of Kerala,” the statement further added. The announcement comes a day after the return of Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar, who was in the U.S. for more than a week for treatment.last_img read more