first_imgThe task for WUFIWhen heat, air, and moisture move through materials, assemblies, and enclosures, they do so with great complexity. Moisture, for example, can move via any of the mechanisms listed in the table below (see Image #2). Also, things are always changing with time, of course, and a flow usually depends on the direction taken through an assembly as well. Properties change depending on which way you go. (The fancy physics word for this is anisotropy, and it’s where the amazingly fun del operator, ∇, comes into play.)WUFI models the flow of heat and moisture through an assembly. It can do a pretty good job with isotropic (uniform in all directions) materials or assemblies… if you get the inputs right. What that means is that you can get pretty good results for one-dimensional flows in the field of an assembly, such as a wall or ceiling. Last year I wrote about WUFI 1-D and showed that it can tell you how likely a material is to grow mold based on the moisture accumulation or drying over time.The equations that WUFI attempts to solve are shown below (see Image #3). The software does so numerically, and it requires the user to put in a lot of information about the assemblies being modeled. The solutions show heat and moisture travel across an assembly over time.According to Joe, when WUFI came across the Atlantic from Germany, it didn’t do a good job of incorporating air flow or rain. Now the software does a better job with them, getting closer to accurate modeling of the transport mechanisms shown in the table below. You still have to know how much wind-driven rain or air leakage to model and pick the correct weather location, but “WUFI is ready for prime time,” Lstiburek said. Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, energy consultant, RESNET-certified trainer, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. Check out his in-depth course, Mastering Building Science at Heatspring Learning Institute, and follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. A lesson in water“The three biggest problems in buildings are water, water, and water.” Gus Handegord said this a long time ago, and it’s still true. (Now I know who to give credit to for the variation on this quote I used in Matt Risinger’s Summer Camp video.) What happened to The Igloo Chronicles, Part IV?If you’ve been following the debate from a distance over the past two years, you might think Joe and Achilles hate each other. Nothing could be further from the truth. They’ve worked together for a long time, and Joe talks admiringly about all the hours Achilles put in to read and comment on his doctoral dissertation. I got to spend time with them at the 2013 North American Passive House conference, and it’s clear that these two men like and respect each other. (By the way, the blonde blur in Image #4 below is Betsy Pettit, Joe’s wife and business partner at BSC.)But I just wish they’d continued the igloo theme. I don’t think either of them mentioned igloos once during the Expert Session on WUFI (although Achilles did mention candles3), so they killed my idea of calling this article, The Igloo Chronicles, Part IV. Dr. Joseph Lstiburek started it in 2012 when, in his keynote address at the Passive House conference, he said igloos were the first passive houses and you don’t need WUFI,1 the hygrothermal modeling tool, to design and build a good house. Dr. Achilles Karagiozis, one of the leading proponents of WUFI, struck back in a presentation at the 2013 Westford Symposium on Building Science. In it he described a scenario in which Joe was in a helicopter crash in Alaska and had to build an igloo to survive. At the Passive House conference this year, Achilles expanded on that same topic.Last week at Building Science Corporation‘s (BSC) annual Expert’s Session, the two of them presented on the same day in a daylong seminar on hygrothermal modeling. And as a bonus, Kohta Ueno of Building Science Corporation presented on his work on the modeling and monitoring of embedded wood joists in insulated masonry walls. Here’s what you missed if you weren’t there. Lstiburek began his part of the hygrothermal modeling session with this quote and a beautiful explanation of the fundamentals of building science, the laws of thermodynamics, and the behavior of water. Although most of us are thinking about the flow of turkey and pumpkin cheesecake this week, it’s the flow of HAM — heat, air, and moisture — that’s of great concern in building science, and Joe showed how it works.The central focus was on water, which, all by itself, is the three biggest problems in buildings. According to Joe, 80% of all construction problems are related to water.The lesson covered the fundamentals, but Joe really shone when discussing the movement of water through porous media and through assemblies. He discussed the four — yes, four — phases of water.2 Liquid, gas, and solid are well known, of course, but adsorbed water behaves differently from any of those three.The difference between adsorption and absorption is an important one. For water in porous materials, absorption would be liquid water filling the pores. Think of a sponge absorbing water. Adsorption would be just a few layers of water molecules lining the surfaces of the pores. Adsorbed water moves differently from water in the liquid or vapor phases, and that has significant implications for building science.After explaining the basics, Lstiburek went into the details of the different mechanisms that get water moving through materials and assemblies, as shown in the table below (see Image #2), taken from the presentation slides (which you can download from the BSC website). He covered vapor pressure, concentration, Kelvin’s equation, contact angle, and surface energy and made it all make sense.It was a really great presentation, and if you haven’t seen Dr. Joe do this, I certainly recommend it. A lot of what he did here was part of his two-day Building Science Fundamentals class. The doctors’ advice on the limitations of WUFIBoth Dr. Lstiburek and Dr. Karagiozis cautioned the audience on the limitations of WUFI. Karagiozis used the example of him trying to give his presentation by reading notes off a regular sheet of paper held up by Lstiburek all the way in the back of the room. No matter how good your eyes are, you’re not really going to be able to read that piece of paper very well.Karagiozis also said it’s important to use the transport properties of the actual material that’s going to be used in the assembly. You can’t use generic properties because density, permeance, and other properties vary from one product to another. Extruded polystyrene (XPS) from Owens Corning, for example, doesn’t have the same properties as XPS from Dow.Lstiburek’s statement about hygrothermal analysis increasingly being included in contracts was followed by a big caution sign. Mechanical and structural engineers, he said, are most likely to be the ones who have to do the modeling, but if they don’t know the tricks of using WUFI, they’ll get the wrong answers.For example, he told us about a case in Houston where an engineer ran WUFI and found that the building’s walls were getting wet from interior water vapor. So the engineer specified a vapor barrier beneath the drywall. “When you get the wrong answer, you shouldn’t be doing this,” Joe said. What he meant is you shouldn’t be doing this when you don’t recognize that you’ve gotten the wrong answer.In addition to what Joe and Achilles said, Kohta Ueno presented what he’s learned so far in a Building America project they’ve been working on at BSC (which you can download from the BSC website). They’ve been modeling and monitoring the heat and moisture flows in embedded wood joists in insulated masonry walls, a fairly common construction. What he concluded was that using a 1-D model on a 3-D hygrothermal problem is not recommended, largely because of the great number of inputs and variables. He said you could spend a lot of time on modeling a problem like this, but it’s probably not very useful. When should you use WUFI?According to Joe, WUFI definitely has its uses. And those uses are in assemblies that don’t have a track record, like superinsulated, supertight Passive House projects. With R-40 truss walls or R-60 insulated rooflines, the margin for error is smaller, and WUFI can provide valuable insights into how those assemblies might work. You still have to follow up with monitoring the actual performance, but the modeling might be able to help you avoid costly mistakes.“The tool is phenomenal,” Joe said, but he wants to help reduce the mistakes people make by using WUFI. To that end, BSC is working on materials to help users learn what kind of tolerances they’re dealing with. The BSC team is putting together lists of inputs that will produce certain results so users get a feel for the inputs and the outputs.“I’m hoping two-thirds of the modeling that’s being done now won’t need to be done,” said Lstiburek, “and the modeling that’s needed is done correctly.” The uses of WUFIWhen you use WUFI and get results, you can learn a lot about how an assembly or collection of assemblies might behave. One thing you can do is to model the performance of a new type of wall assembly to see if it will dry adequately.You can also model the performance of a whole enclosure as a collection of assemblies. This is what WUFI Passive does. PHIUS allows Certified Passive House Consultants to use either the PHPP or WUFI Passive to certify Passive House projects. This version of the software incorporates the Passive House requirements, so it gives you a dynamic look at what’s happening with the assemblies as well as the conditions inside the enclosure and whether it passes or fails.Karagiozis said a hygrothermal analysis tool like WUFI is needed to address ASHRAE’s design methodology. We didn’t need it before, he said, because buildings were more tolerant of mistakes. Now, though, we need it because of:Enhanced comfort requirementsEnergy conservationNew materialsWe can use WUFI, Karagiozis said, to design for increased drying performance, better water management, and more forgiving systems.According to Lstiburek, hygrothermal analysis is being included in more and more construction contracts these days, too. But is that a good thing? RELATED ARTICLES WUFI Is Driving Me Crazy A Brief Introduction to WUFI, in 5 Easy PiecesMakin’ WUFI Footnotes1. WUFI stands for Wärme- Und Feuchtetransport Instationärs, which translates literally (according to Google’s translator) as Heat and Moisture Transport Unsteady.2. Since I was trained as a physicist, I thought the fourth phase would have been plasma the first time I heard someone talk about the four phases of water, but plasma doesn’t really come into play in building science, unless you’re working on a physics lab or nuclear fusion reactor.3. In his earlier WUFI talks, Achilles described a scenario with Joe burning candles to try to stay warm enough inside his makeshift igloo to keep from dying after his Alaska helicopter crash. At the PHIUS conference this year, he also told the audience that Joe loves candles, especially scented ones, so if you want to be his friend, just give him a candle. So I gave him one last week. You should, too.last_img read more


first_imgJapan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 In a recent  Q&A session with USA Today’s Sam Amick, one of James’ fiercest rivals, Draymond Green of the Golden State Warriors, addressed possible problems with the four-time NBA MVP’s heavy workload.“To a certain extent yes. And to a certain extent, no. I don’t think anyone should be panicking 12 games in, or 13 games in,” the reigning NBA Defensive Player of the Year said of the Cavs’ subpar 8-7 record.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“However, there are some glaring concerns with them. And at the same time, you’re missing a 30-point (per game) player (in Thomas) on the bench who’s hurt,” he said.“So my concern would be that LeBron is playing so many minutes right now,” Green added, pointing out LeBron’s 38.1 minutes per game—the highest in the NBA this season. Read Next 3 UCLA basketball players suspended after theft in China “He’s not just doing it because [he wants to]. That’s tough. That’s tough mentally also. That would be more of my concern over them not playing well. Like, [expletive], it’s Game 13. Who cares who’s playing well?”  Khristian Ibarrola /raRELATED STORY:LeBron: ‘It’s been a while since I had a guy who can score and create for others’ Kevin Durant out with Achilles injury; to undergo MRI on Tuesday PLAY LIST 03:12Kevin Durant out with Achilles injury; to undergo MRI on Tuesday01:08Smash hit? Tesla suffers broken glass mishap at launch of new truck01:43Who are Filipinos rooting for in the NBA Finals?01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC A staunch believer of “Father Time,” Green acknowledged LeBron’s freakish talents, but claimed that everyone slows down at some point.“Yeah, he’s superhuman but eventually his superhuman powers go away, so that would be more of my concern if I’m a Cavs fan or somebody with the Cavs or a player, is like ‘Man, he’s been playing a lot of 40 minute (nights) and it’s only Nov. 12.’ But I wouldn’t be pressing the panic button just yet,” he said.James is about to turn 33 next month but continues to put the entire Cavs team on his shoulders each game.Green also addressed the Cavs’ recent roster woes, which he attributes to LeBron’s extended minutes on the floor.“I don’t know who it is. But at the end of the day, if he’s doing it, he’s doing it for a reason,” Green said.ADVERTISEMENT Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion LATEST STORIES John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding MOST READ Draymond Green #23 of the Golden State Warriors and LeBron James #23 of the Cleveland Cavaliers fall to the floor during the first half in Game 5 of the 2017 NBA Finals at ORACLE Arena on June 12, 2017, in Oakland, California.  Ezra Shaw/Getty Images/AFPApart from his unworldly talent on the basketball court, LeBron James is also perhaps best known for his durability, evading any significant injuries thoroughout his career.Despite getting up in age, his heavy usage rate on the court continues this season, especially with the recent struggles of the perennial contender Cleveland Cavaliers.ADVERTISEMENT CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View commentslast_img read more


first_imgLegendary all-rounder Ian Botham feels despite India being the world’s number one Test side, England would go on to win the ongoing series as they have more young and vibrant players in their ranks as compared to the visitors.”I think England will win this series because in my opinion they are already the best team in the world and this summer will simply confirm it. They are the coming force in world cricket and unlike India, who have a lot of players in their twilight years, this is a young, vibrant England with more power to add,” Botham wrote in his column for the ‘Mirror’.However, Botham admitted that no matter how much he wants England to win the Test series, he would like to watch some quality cricket by some of the biggest names in the world cricket, including Sachin Tendulkar.”This is the 2,000th Test match of all time. Statistics don’t thrill me — people and performances are what matter, so if Sachin gets to 100 hundreds at Lord’s I’ll be applauding him, not because of the numbers but because he is a great player, a great man and a great ambassador for the game,” said the former cricketer.”The thing I look forward to most when I turn up for commentary duty is an England win, but a close second comes high quality cricket from high quality players.”So I will walk through the gates at Lord’s knowing I’m guaranteed at least one of those things because Sachin’s name will be on the team sheet,” he added.advertisementRemembering the times he had played against the Indian batting legend, Botham wrote, “18 years after I quit professional cricket, Sachin is the only man left on the international circuit that I played against.”Tendulkar ct Stewart b Botham 35, and it was a beauty if I remember rightly, back in 1992 during the World Cup.”Stating that he has “nothing but admiration and respect for Sachin”, 55-year-old Englishman insisted, “If you’d have told me then that this little lad would still be playing in 2011, having just won the World Cup and be on the brink of reaching his 100th international hundred, I’d have said you were mad.”But then Sachin doesn’t deal in the ordinary. He has batted and batted his way into the record books and he has done it with the style and grace off the field under intense pressure that no-one could match — certainly not me.”Botham said there could be no better role model than Tendulkar for the budding cricketers.”He is an all-time great of the game, whose love and passion for cricket is unparalleled. If ever there was a role model to be had for a young cricketer, then Sachin is it.””This guy is a phenomenon and if I were the England team I wouldn’t feel any better about the fact that his highest score at this ground is 37. If anything, that would make me feel worse. He will be totally focused on getting to his 100th hundred, and there is no place in the world that he would rather reach the landmark than Lord’s,” Botham said.”It would be a dream, a fairytale for him if he were to make it there. The only problem for England is that he has a habit of having them come true, and when Sachin is on song there is very little you can do,” he added.Botham, however, hoped that English bowlers could succeed in stopping the legendary batsman from reaching the much-awaited milestone.”As much of a fan as I am of his, I do think our bowlers can succeed in checking his progress,” he said, adding that James Anderson and Chris Tremlett are expected to do their best.”James Anderson and Chris Tremlett are forming the most potent opening attack in the game to rival Dale Steyn and Morne Morkel.”Behind them is the best spinner in the world in Graeme Swann and alongside him should be the ever improving and impressive Tim Bresnan,” said Botham.With inputs from PTIlast_img read more


first_imgIndia’s top men’s doubles stars Leander Paes and Rohan Bopanna won their respective second-round matches in the French Open on Friday.Sixth seeds Rohan Bopanna and Florin Mergea won their second-round men’s doubles French Open match, beating French pair Gregoire Barrere and Quentin Halys 6-3, 6-4.Sixteenth seeds Leander Paes and Marcin Matkowski later produced another dominating performance to earn a 6-4, 6-3 win in their second-round match against Julian Knowle and Florian Mayer.BOPANNA-MERGEA SAIL THROUGHBopanna-Mergea took a big headstart in the first set, jumping to a 4-1 lead. They maintained their dominance to reach 5-2 and were in total control as they claimed the first set 6-3 on Court 6.The Indo-Romanian pair maintained ascendancy, breaking their opponents’ first service game to quickly jump 2-0 up. But they were pegged back with the French pair breaking back immediately to 2-2.Bopanna-Mergea converted three of the eight break points received in the second set to ultimately claim the second set 6-4.They won 67 of the total 121 points played, committing seven unforced errors as compared to 2 by their opponents. But conversion of break points turned crucial as Bopanna-Mergea won four of nine break points opposed to just two of four by Barrere-Halys.Bopanna-Mergea outclassed Frenchmen Stephane Robert and Alexandre Sidorenko 6-2, 6-2 in the first round.PAES-MATKOWSKI DOMOINATELater, Paes-Matkowski produced another dominating performance to earn a comfortable victory. Paes-Matkowski face a break point in their second service game and were promptly broken to trail 1-3 in the first set at Court 14.advertisementThe Indo-Polish duo were unable to break back immediately and trailed 2-4 against the Austria-German duo.But they broke the Austrian-Germans pair’s fourth service game to restore parity 4-4. Paes-Matkowski utilised their experience and remained composed to win the key points to snatch a 6-4 win in the first set.And they repeated that act in the second set, breaking ahead at a crucial stage of the game to serve out the second set 6-3. Paes-Matkowski won 63 of the 105 total points played, hit 2 winners to none from their opponents and converted three of the four break points received.last_img read more


first_imgUncle: Half of Europe want Real Madrid midfielder Llorenteby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveThe agent and uncle of Marcos Llorente has cast doubt over his future at Real Madrid.The midfielder was named man of the match for the Club World Cup final victory over Al Ain on Saturday.Julio Llorente, his uncle and agent, admits going into the tournament they were preparing to leave Real next month.”We will remember this throughout his life because it is the first title in which Marcos has won,” said Julio Llorente.”To continue in Madrid is nice, but we knew it was not good for his development. We had the plan to leave on-loan until the match against Rayo.”Since the season ended with Alavés, I’ve been called by half of Europe, including Champions League teams.”I was surprised he did not have more participation.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more


first_imgSolskjaer pleased for debutant Chong: He lifted Man Utd crowdby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveManchester United boss Ole Gunnar Solskjaer felt Tahith Chong lifted the home support in his debut for their 2-0 FA Cup win over Reading.Chong, 19, replaced Juan Mata in the 64th minute of United’s 2-0 FA Cup win over Reading to become the 229th academy graduate to make their first-team bow for the club.”He had two or three really good moments, as you do when you’re young,” Solskjaer said. “You don’t run the game as a first performance for a 19-year-old.”But he got the crowd going, and has shown one or two glimpses of what he can do, he has in training anyway. And the game wasn’t won, it was 2-0 and was still go out there and perform. It’s not like it was 4-0 and it’s just a party, so he did well defensively as well and I think he’ll remember this for a long, long time.”He added: “The pleasing thing is we’re through and another clean sheet, 2-0 flatters us a bit because I think they played some great stuff, but then again we could have had three or four towards the end. The second goal was excellent with Alexis [Sanchez] getting Romelu [Lukaku] in, so individual quality managed to get us through, to be fair.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more


first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Liverpool, Arsenal must deal with Raiola to land AC Milan target Malenby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the lovePremier League clubs will have to deal with Mino Raiola if they’re to bring PSV Eindhoven striker Donyell Malen back to England.Liverpool and former club Arsenal are keen, along with AC Milan.Raiola is said to already have contacted AC Milan, which has fierce competition for Malen.Milan has already informed Raiola they’re interested in the 20-year-old attacker. PSV is said to be asking €30m, but the Italian club believes this is on the high side. It is said that 45 clubs have asked PSV to keep them informed of developments regarding Malen. In addition to AC Milan, Liverpool and his old club Arsenal are also keen on the attacker. last_img read more


first_imgJourdan Lewis hangs on the rim after a dunk.Jourdan Lewis DunkMichigan senior cornerback Jourdan Lewis is known for his superb skills on the football field, but his athletic gifts also translate to the basketball court.While out in Oregon serving as a mentor at Nike’s The Opening, Lewis found some time to hit the hardwood. He posted a video to his Twitter this afternoon showing him throwing down a pretty legit dunk off a self alley-oop.Messin around s pic.twitter.com/h0ZwC688AG— Jourdan Lewis (@JourdanJD) July 9, 2016Not bad at all, especially considering Lewis is only 5-foot-10. [ 247Sports ]last_img read more


first_imgAPTN National newsKateri Tekawitha, also known as the Lily of the Mohawks, is now officially a saint.Millions of people all around the world shared the celebration of her canonization by Pope Benedict on Oct. 21 in Rome.Indigenous Catholics have long awaited this recognition and now have a special saint to call upon.APTN National News reporter Danielle Rochette has this story.last_img


first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 23 2018The more weeks a women takes pain-reliving medication during pregnancy, the earlier their daughters enter puberty. This is shown by a new study from Aarhus University.Breasts, pimples and menstruation, hair growth in places where there was none previously, and unpredictable mood swings. Welcome to puberty, which for the majority of girls begins when they are around ten or eleven years old – or even earlier – if the mother has taken painkillers with paracetamol (which in Denmark sell under names such as e.g. Panodil, Pinex or Pamol) during pregnancy.As the first in the world, researchers from Aarhus University have examined the correlation between the intake of the analgesic paracetamol during pregnancy and girls and boys pubertal development. The results have just been published in the international journal, American Journal of Epidemiology.Related StoriesCannabis use during pregnancy may cause premature birthIt is okay for women with lupus to get pregnant with proper care, says new studyWomen’s pre-pregnancy obesity changes breast milk contents which can affect infant growth”We found a ‘dose-response’ correlation. That is to say, the more weeks with paracetamol during pregnancy, the earlier puberty in girls, but not in boys,” says PhD student Andreas Ernst from the Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, who is behind the study.The study is based on the largest collection of puberty data in the Danish birth cohort (BSIG.dk). A group of around 100,000 women provided detailed information about their use of paracetamol three times during their pregnancy. A total of 15,822 children, 7,697 boys and 8,125 girls born to these mothers between 2000-2003 were followed from the age of eleven and throughout puberty with questionnaires every six months about several different aspects of their development.Puberty arrives earlierThe study showed that girls on average enter puberty between one-and-a-half and three months earlier, if the mother took painkillers for more than twelve weeks during pregnancy.”While entering puberty one-and-a-half to three months earlier may seem unimportant, when taken together with the frequent use of paracetamol during pregnancy, our findings ought to make people take notice. Our results are certainly not the decisive factor that should change current practice, but the perception of paracetamol as ‘the safe and harmless choice’ during pregnancy ought to be challenged,” explains Andreas Ernst.Worldwide, the average consumption of paracetamol has been increasing, and studies suggest that more than fifty per cent of pregnant women make use of painkillers containing paracetamol at least once during their pregnancy.”As earlier pubertal development has previously been tied to an increased risk of more frequent and serious diseases in adulthood such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and testicular and breast cancer, it’s important to identify possible causes of early puberty so we can prevent this development,” says Andreas Ernst. Source:http://newsroom.au.dk/en/news/#news-14008last_img read more